Saturday, November 14, 2009
Sunday, September 6, 2009
Out of the three main cities of Kathmandu valley which are historically Newar, Patan is mostly Buddhist containing the four stupas built by Ashoka, Bhaktapur is primarily Hindu whereas Kathmandu is mixed. Generally, both Hindu and Buddhist deities are worshiped and festivals are celebrated. However, for ritual activities, Hindu and Buddhist Newar have their own priest and cultural difference.
The Newar Music consists mainly of percussion instruments. Wind instruments such as flutes and similar instruments are also used. String instruments are very rare. There are songs pertaining to particular seasons and festivals. Paahan chare music is most probably the fastest played music whereas the Dapa the slowest. The dhimay music are the loudest ones. There are certain musical instruments such as Dhimay and Bhusya which are played as instrumental only and are not accompanied with songs.more on www.http://sprajapati.com.np
Traditional Newar art is used in rituals and festivals. The prevalent art forms are Paubas (water based gouche paintings on cloth), sculpture (lost wax process bronzes, terracotta, wood and stone), masks (metal and paper-mache), woodcuts and murals. The Chitrakar and Vajracharyas are the traditional painters and the Shakyas are the sculptors. Along with being traditional painters, the Chitrakars are also mask makers (paper-mache), woodcut printers and mural painters. And Prajapati are traditional potters, they make different artifact including terracotta sculpture.
The Newar Dance can be broadly classified as masked dance and dance without the use of masks. The most representative of Newari dance is Lakhey dance. Almost all the settlements of Newar have Lakhey dance at least once a year. Almost all of these Lakhey dances are held in the Goonlaa month of Nepal Sambat-a newar lunar calender. So, they are called Goonlaa Lakhey. However, the most famous Lakhey dance is the Majipa Lakhey dance. It is performed by the Ranjitkars of Kathmandu. The dance takes place for a week during the week containing the full moon of Yenlaa month. The Lakhey are considered as the saviors of children.
The different divisions of Newars had different historical developments before their arrival in the Kathmandu valley. The common identity of Newar was formed after their arrival to the valley. Until the unification of Nepal, with the possible exception of the Muslims under Gayasuddin who attacked and destroyed many parts of the valley, all people who had inhabited the valley at any point of time were either Newar or were progenitors of Newar. So, the history of Newar correlates to a great magnitude to the history of Kathmandu valley prior to the Unification of Nepal.
The earliest known history of Newar and Kathmandu valley were recorded in the form of mythical scriptures. One of such texts which even accounts the creation of the valley is Swayambhu Purana. According to the Swayambhu Purana, the Kathmandu valley was a giant lake called Nāgdaha until the Bodhisattva Manjusri, with the aid of a holy sword called Chandrahrāsa, cut open a part of southern hill of Kachchhapāla and then cut open Gokarnadaha and drained the giant lake, allowing humans to settle the valley land. This apocryphal legend is supported by some geological evidence of an ancient lakebed and it provides an explanation for the high fertility of Kathmandu valley soil.
According to the Swayambhu Purana, Manjusri then established a city called Manjupattan (Sanskrit "Land Established by Manjusri"), now called Manjipā, where he crowned Dharmākara as the king of the land. A shrine dedicated to Manjusri is still present in Majipā.
No recorded historical document has been found after this era till the advent of Gopal era. A genealogy of emperors is recorded in a book called Gopal Raj Banshawali. According to this manuscript, Gopals were followed by Mahispals, and Kirats before Licchavis entered from south. Some claim Buddha to have visited Nepal during the reign of Kirat emperor Jitedasti.
The Licchavi dynasty ruled for at least 600 years, followed by the Malla dynasty in 12th century AD. The Nepal Bhasa script is estimated to be at least 1200 years old. Nepal Bhasa inscriptions in an ancient manuscript, Nidan, from 901 AD and on a stone tablet from 1173 AD in the courtyard of Bajrayogini Temple at Sankhu, attest to the deep roots of Newar culture in the Kathmandu valley.
Newar reign over the valley and their sovereignty and influence over neighboring territories ended approximately 250 years ago with the conquest of the Kathmandu valley in 1769 by the Gorkhali Shah dynasty founded by Prithvi Narayan Shah. Newars were engaged in business between Tibet and Moguls in India. So, to affect the Mogul empire's treasury, British East India Company supplied weapons and advice to Prithvi Narayan Shah, who in return would conquer Kathmandu Valley and put an end to the trade between Tibet and Moguls of India. Systematic brutal suppression of the Newar people was pursued for generations during early dynastic rule in order to discourage the Newar people from any political aspiration.
The Newar maintain a highly literate culture and their members are prominent in every sphere, from agriculture, business, education and government administration to medicine, law, religion, architecture, fine art, and literature. There is a wide acceptance of the fact that Newar architects may have been responsible for developing Asia's hallmark multi-tiered pagoda architecture. Newar devotional pauba and thangka painting, sculpture and metal craftsmanship are world-renowned for their exquisite beauty. The fine temples and palaces of Kathmandu, Patan (Yala)Bhaktapur are largely the product of Newar architects, artisans and sculptors. Now the enterprising Newars are spread across Nepal, Bhutan, State of Sikkim and the District of Darjeeling in India.
The Newa (Nepal Bhasa: नेवाः Newā(h), Classical Nepal Bhasa: नेवार Newār or नेवाल Newāl) are the indigenous people of Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. Newars are a linguistic community with Tibeto-Burman and Indo ethnictiy/race, bound together by a common language.
The term Newar applies roughly to the descendants of citizens of Medieval Nepal (consisting of Kathmandu Valley as the capital and the territory ever changing with farthest extent being Gandaki river to west and Koshi river to the east, Tibet to north and Terai in south). Their common language being Nepal Bhasa ("Newari" according to Statistics Nepal) or the languages progenitor of Nepal Bhasa. According to Nepal's 2001 census, the 1,245,232 Newar in the country are the nation's sixth largest ethnic group, representing 5.48% of the population.
Nepal Bhasa is of Tibeto-Burman origin (but heavily influenced by Indo-Aryan languages like Sanskrit, Pali, Bengali and Maithili). Nepal Bhasa also contains Austro-Asiatic words and phrases. In 2001 the language is spoken by 825,458 Nepalese as their mother tongue.
Thursday, September 3, 2009
Monday, August 17, 2009
Monday, August 10, 2009
The Lakhe dance is performed yearly during the Ja Nai Purnima in the streets of Sankhu. As king of the demons, the Lakhe serves to protect the residents of the city from evil spirits and misfortune. His dance is wild and spontaneous, performed to the music of cymbals and special drums. Masked and robed in red, his bells jingle loudly as he hunts and destroys the dangerous demons.
Tuesday, July 28, 2009
Sunday, July 26, 2009
Description of Swayambhu Purana:
Jina shree Raj Bodhisattva had asked Jaya shree about the origin of the Swayambhu; the description of the origin as told by Upagupta Bhikshu to king Ashoka has been narrated in the first chapter of the story of the origin of the Swayambhu. It also gives an account of the prophecy made by Shree Shakyamuni to Maitreya Bodhisattva about the origin of the Swayambhu in the middle of the lotus with one thousand petals planted by Bipaswi Tathagata. At the time of Bipaswi, shree Shakyamuni was famous by the name of satyadharma Bodhisattva. In this chapter also shows the then Kathmandu valley was a big lake habited by Nagas (Snakes).
In Second chapter, as a reply to the question of Maitreya Bodhisattva, when did the Swayambhu come into being over the lotus planted by Bipaswi Tathagata?” Shakyamuni Bhagwan replied that Swayambhu originated at the time of Shikhi Tathagata when he was known as Kshemankar Bodhisattva. That chapter also gives a description of the fruits blessing due to worship of the Swayambhu.
In Third Chapter Maitreya Bodhisattva asks the Buddha, “When was the city made by clearing up the water of the lake resided by Nagas? There upon Shayamuni Bhagwan replied, “When I was known as Parbataksha at the time of Biswabhu Tathagata, a person by the name of Manju Devacharya cleared up the water by destroying the forest of Kuruwa, Chabaha, Suryaghat and Gokarna and established city, made Dharmakar its king and made the city famous as Manjupattan.
Maitreya Bodhisattva asks Shakyamuni Bhagwan about the creation of the places of pilgrimage after the founding of the city of Nepal in the fourth chapter. Then after Shakyamuni Bhagwan explained, “oh Maitreya! At the time when human being had a life of forty thousand years, I was living as Jyotipal Bodhisattva in the city called Kshamavati at Krakuchhanda Tathagata’s place. At time shree Krakuchhanda Bhagwan went to visit Shree Swayambhu. Then he narrated to his community and to the people in general about the origin of the holy pilgrimages Bagamati and Keshawati.
The fifth chapter provides:
I. Th e story of Manilingeswor Manichud, the image of Maitreya Bodhisattva on the hill of Manichud.
II. The story of the salvation of the Prince Gokarna, Gokarneswor , the image of Gagangunj at Gokarna.
III. The story of the suppression of Kulik, the king of Nagas, Kileswor Vaitarag, the image of Samant Bhadra at Changu.
IV. The story of the salvation of Sarbapal Vaidya, Kumbheswor Vaitarag. The image of Vajrapani at Kwonti.
V. The story of Manjugarta, who preferred sweets to learning, Garteswor, the image of Manjushree at the field of Phampi.
VI. The story of Omdiyan acharya, Phankeswor Vaitarag, the image of Sarbanibaran Viskambhi in the lake of Phampi.
VII. The story of the troubles faced by Omdiyan due to the testing of god Ganesh.
VIII. The story of Omdiyan Visualizing the effect of Astasiddhi (mastery of eight Skills). Vikramayaswor Vaitaraga, the image of Khagarbha Bodhisattva at Adeswor.
Thus the fifth chapter accommodates things about eight Vaitarag & the story of the salvation of Takshaka Naga at Punya Tirtha, a pilgrimage at Gokarna; the story of the salvation of Lord Shiva and his consort Parvati Gokarna; the story of the salvation of Lord Shiva and his consost Parvati at Shanta Tirtha, a pilgrimage at Guheswori, the story of the salvation of the shepherd Gopal by name at name at Shankar Tirtha, a pilgrimage at shankhame; the story of the salvation of the gambler Din chud at Nidhan Tirtha, a pilgrimage at Lakha Tirtha; the story of the salvation of the ignorant king called Sindhu at Gyan Tirtha, a pilgrimage at Karha river; the story of the Salvation of Koti Karna Sharthabaha, who showed impudence and disobeyed his own mother, at Chintamani Tirtha, a pilgrimage at Teku Dobhan, the story of the salvation of the demon Danasur at Danaga; the story of the salvation o fthe wicked king, minister, the sons of merchant of the country of Gaud at Sulakshana Tirtha, a pilgrimage at Bhajanga, and the story of the salvation of the demon the wife of Danasur, at Jaya Tirhta, a pilgrimage at Nekhu.
The sixth Chapter incorporates accounts of the coming of Dharma Shree Mitra to Nepal to comprehend the meaning of the twelve alphabets mentioned in Namasangiti and the accounts of his being king of Nepal & making of Shree Swayambhu famous by the name of Dharma Dhatu Vagiswor.
The seventh chapter gives an account of how the gods including Indra erected the stups as a fulfillment of the wish of shanty Karacharya to cover up Dharma Dhatu Vagiswor to make bowl shaped dipa over it, & also provides accounts of the establishment of image of gods including Basapur, after invoking them.
The eighth chapter describes about the prophecy of lord Bhagwan as to how the Nepal Valley will face drought for seven year and how Gunakama Deve, as instructed by Shanti Karacharya, Made the rain fall by bringing Karkotak, the king of Nagas. The ninth chapter comprises of the prophecy of lord Bhagwan as to how the twelve year long drought would be put to an and Bandhu Datta, the pupil Shanti Karacharya, King Narendra Dev and Lalit, a farmer serving the king, by bringing lok Natha (the Lord of the world) from Kamaru Kamaksha; if also provides the name of twenty one upa-Tirthas.
In tenth chapter are the story about the Chuda Bikshuni and the highlights about the rules of telling and listening Swayambhu Puran and also the blessing one gets for telling, telling, listening, making others listen, writing or making others write it.
Nepalis believe that reading out and listening to the Hindu scripture called Swosthani help them in keeping away evil spirits and inauspicious things from their home. Some women take a Swosthani brata (a day fast) for the whole month. They believe that such undertakings please Goddess Swosthani, and she meets their wishes. Goddess Parvati, believed to be another form of Goddess Swosthani, had undertaken such religious worship to achieve her goal of receiving Lord Shiva as her spouse.
People dedicate this auspicious month of Magha to Lord Shiva and his consort Parvati. They spend the whole month on in service of and in praise of this divine couple. A month long religious fair is held at the river called Salinadi in Sankhu about 20km northeast of Kathmandu. People venerate Goddess Swosthani and demigoddess Chandrawoti who suffered the consequences of the insult she had inflicted on Goddess Swosthani. Later on, Chandrawoti undertook the Swosthani brata for a month to atone for the sin and she got relief from her suffering and became a demigoddess.
The Nepali version of the Holy Scripture called Swosthani begins with the description of the creation of heaven, earth, divinities, demons, humans, ghosts, animals and birds. After the creation of the heaven and earth, the story goes on telling about the lives of divinities, and how one divinity insulted another. It goes on describing the life of Lord Shiva with his first spouse called Satidevi, and then with the second spouse called Parvati, and then the life of human called Gomaiju, her son Navaraj, and his spouse called Chandrawoti. The story ends with the elevation of Navaraj and Chandrawoti to the status of king and queen by the grace of Goddess Swosthani.
Narration of these stories takes one full month for a person reading out a number of pages for about an hour every evening during the winter month called Magha dedicated to this religious service. The reader performs a small puja to the scripture before opening it to read. A small wicker plate of popcorn and fried peanuts or of any other ready to eat sweet item is set beside the scripture so that it also would listen to the scripture. All household members and neighbors who do not have such a scripture to read or no person to read joining the household members listen to the story of Swosthani. At the end of reading the scripture, the reader makes offerings of the food set aside to Goddess Swosthani and then distributes it to the listeners as the blessing from the Goddess.
After the story of creation of earth, heaven, divinities, demons, humans, animals and birds, the story of marrying one daughter after another of Hindu demigod called Dachhe prajapati begins. Dachhe prajapati had tens of fabulous daughters married to various divinities. Lord Shiva alone remained unmarried among the deities. When Lord Shiva came to know Dachhe prajapati had given his daughters in marriages to deities leaving behind a single senior most daughter with him. Lord Shiva thought that Dachhe prajapati must have set her aside for him to marry her. So, Lord Shiva himself approached Dachhe prajapati for the hands of the senior most daughter called Satidevi. Dachhe prajapati and his wife did not give her in marriage to anybody because they wanted her to be with them during their old age. When Lord Shiva approached Dachhe prajapati with the proposal of marrying Satidevi, he not only rejected the proposal but also insulted Lord Shiva in public. Dachhe prajapati was a conservative Hindu whereas Lord Shiva was a liberal one.
The preserver of the Hindu world, Lord Vishnu, and heavenly king Indra saw urgency in easing the insult inflicted on Lord Shiva, as the Hindu world might be in jeopardy if something would go wrong with Lord Shiva. So, they tricked Dachhe prajapati into giving his daughter Satidevi in marriage to Lord Shiva. This was actually a reconciliation Lord Vishnu attempted to bring about between Lord Shiva and Dachhe prajapati. He, however, never forgot the trick played by Lord Vishnu on him. He also never forgave Lord Shiva for the marriage. So, Dachhe prajapati ignored Satidevi and her spouse after the marriage.
When Satidevi came to know that her father Dachhe prajapati did not invite her to the great fire-offering (Yagyan) he had been performing, she rushed to her father and demanded explanation from the father for not inviting her to such a great event. Dachhe prajapati instead of promising her not to repeat such a mistake, continued to insult Lord Shiva, which Satidevi could not tolerate any more, and she in her extreme anger jumped into the burning fire and ended her life.
When Lord Shiva saw the lifeless body of Satidevi lying on the great fire at the altar, he could not control his anger, too. He cut off the head of Dachhe prajapati and tossed it on the fire. With great sorrow and repentance for the misdeeds of Dachhe prajapati, his spouse pleaded with Lord Shiva to return the life of Dachhe prajapati. His mind filled with pity for her; Lord Shiva picked up the head of a sacrificial lamb and fixed it on the shoulder of Dachhe prajapati with its face on backside, and gave him a new life with the head of a lamb.
Lord Shiva carried the lifeless body of Satidevi on his back, and began trotting around the globe, again posing threat to the Hindu world. Gradually, the corpse of Satidevi began decomposing, and fell one piece of her body after another on the ground creating various deities on the site.
Satidevi reincarnated in Parvati. Satidevi was born again as the daughter of king Himalaya. The king named her Parvati. When Parvati reached puberty; her parents wanted her to marry to Lord Vishnu. However, she developed a wish for receiving Lord Shiva as her spouse. To get her wish met, she undertook a month long Swosthani brata and got married to Lord Shiva as a result. The divine couple has two sons called Kumar and Ganesh.
Ganesh became an elephant-headed because Lord Shiva not being able to recognize Ganesh beheaded him in anger when Ganesh refused Lord Shiva an entry into his own abode. Ganesh was keeping a guard while his mother Parvati was taking a bathe in her chamber when Lord Shiva arrived at Kailash. Lord Shiva could not recognize Ganesh as he had been away from his home called Kailash for several years. By the time, Ganesh had grown quite a bit making him unrecognizable. When Parvati saw Lord Shiva in her inner chamber she realized that something must have gone wrong. Realizing the mistake Lord Shiva sent his attendants to get a head of any beings they met on the way at first hand. They met an elephant and cut off its head, and brought it to Lord Shiva who in turn fixed it on the shoulder of Ganesh.
The divine couple decided to grant a boon to their sons: Kumar and Ganesh, as they have come of age. They called on them and asked them to make a round trip to the Mount Sumeru so that they could bless them with a boon on their return.
Ganesh secured the boon from the parents first despite his vehicle being a lousy rat. Kumar has a peacock as his vehicle whereas Ganesh has a rat. Kumar immediately rode on the peacock and flew to make a trip to Mount Sumeru. Poor Ganesh could not dare to ride on the rat and make an almost impossible trip to Mount Sumeru. So, Ganesh was upset. Seeing his master sad, the rat asked Ganesh the reason for being so sad. Thinking useless to tell his problem to the mundane rat, Ganesh kept quite. However, the rat went on insisting Ganesh on telling him the truth. Ultimately, Ganesh gave in and told him what his parents had said to him. The rat smiled and told Ganesh that it was a very simple thing to do for securing the boon first. Then, the rat said to Ganesh, “Master, please go to your parents, ask them to stand together and then go round them three times and prostrate at their feet and tell them ‘you are my parents and you are Mount Sumeru, too for me.’” Then, Ganesh took the counsel of the rat and went to his parents: Lord Shiva and Parvati; Ganesh did to them what the rat told him to do. His parents were very happy with him, and granted him the boon of the rights to receiving the first offerings. So, none of the Hindu deities accept the offerings made to them without making offerings to Lord Ganesh.
Kumar secured the boon but less significant than Ganesh received. When Kumar came back from the trip to Mount Sumeru; Ganesh has already received the boon. Kumar strongly protested against his parents’ granting the boon first to Ganesh, as he did not meet the condition set by them. However, the parents could not revoke the boon given to Ganesh; they made Kumar eligible to receive offerings before Ganesh but in a simple form. So, the Newar community has a stone carved into an eight-petal form Kumar set at the entrance to their houses, and they bring offerings to him in a leaf plate and drop them on it before going to make offerings to Lord Ganesh.
After having a divine boon, Ganesh himself began making favors to his devotees. The first beneficiary was the family of Shiva Bhakta Brahmin. As the couple was poor and childless, Ganesh made them rich, and then granted the couple a daughter. The couple with a beautiful daughter lived happily for a number of years.
However, a great misfortunate befell them. Shiva Bhakta Brahmin lost his wealth; he had to give her beloved daughter called Gomaiju in marriage to an old man without any possessions of wealth. Gomaiju underwent several kinds of sufferings because she unknowingly antagonized the Lord. She brought up her son, Navaraj with a great difficulty.
Gomaiju revered Goddess Swosthani taking a fast every day for a month; as a result, she not only got relief from her sufferings but also got her son Navaraj crowned a king. At that time the tradition had it that an elephant with divine power went around the city-state to choose a king from among the people. The elephant chose Navaraj for a king.
However, his spouse Chandrawoti because of her ego of being a queen insulted Goddess Swosthani rejecting the blessed food offered by the porters carrying her to the palace. When the porters reached the bank of the river called Salinadi; Chandrawoti stopped the porters to have a break for some time. During the break the porters went to watch the group of people performing worship to Goddess Swosthani. They listened to the story of Goddess Swosthani, received the Goddess-blessed food and saved some of it for Chandrawoti. When the porters came to her she was furious with them at spending so much time on wandering elsewhere. They tried to explain to her where they were and why they took so much time to come back. However, she did not listen to their explanation. She tossed away the blessed food offered to her from their hands.
Chandrawoti suffered the consequences of her insult to Goddess Swosthani. In no time, there was a heavy rain. The river Salinadi swelled up with the water from the rain. The swollen river swept away the porters while crossing the river. She fell down the river. She turned into a stone and remained there in-situ. Nobody could recognize her and nobody offered her any food.
Later on, she realized her sins and to atone for the sins, made offerings to Goddess Swosthani for a month. She not only got relief from her sins but also transformed into a demigoddess by the grace of Goddess Swosthani.
Thereafter, Nepalese people set the tradition of revering Goddess Swosthani, Demigoddess Chandrawoti, her spouse Navaraj and the porters at Salinadi during the month long religious fair in the month of Magha.
Women taking the month long Swosthani brata complete their offerings on the full moon day in the bright fortnight of the Magha month. On this day, they perform purification rites, and they fast for the whole day. In the evening they perform special offerings to Goddess Swosthani. These offerings comprise 108-special bread called ‘achheta’ prepared for making offerings to the Goddess on this occasion. After the completion of offerings to the Goddess they offer these blessed bread first to their husband. If they do not have a husband, they offer the bread to their son, if they do not have a son, to the son of their close friends. If they do not have even such sons, they dispose the bread in a holy river.
Tuesday, July 21, 2009
In Kathmandu, the eclipse started at 5.45 am, reached climax at 6.42 am, when 96 per cent of the sun was blocked by moon and ended at 7.45 am. Kathmandu's sky was seen partially dark for a few minutes around 6.42 am.
Eastern towns like Biratnagar and Dharan were dark like in the evenings, reports say. However, the eclipse could not be viewed properly as it was raining in Biratnagar.
In Pokhara, the eclipse started at 5.46 am and reached climax at 6.42 am when 93 per cent of the sun will be covered by moon.
B.P. Koirala Memorial Planetarium, Observatory and Science Museum Development Board has made special arrangements to view the eclipse by telescope without damaging the eye from Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) premises in Khumaltar, the Kathmandu Mall and Takshashila Academy in Baluwatar.
Hundreds of Kathmandu denizens thronged Kathmandu Mall, Sundhara and NAST office Khumaltar to view the solar eclipse.
Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal also went to NAST office, Khumaltar to view the eclipse. Some television channels are broadcasted the telescopic view of the eclipse live.
Meanwhile, the government has declared a public holiday on Wednesday in view of the total solar eclipse. The home ministry issued a press release Tuesday declaring a public holiday in all government offices across the country and diplomatic missions in various countries. Educational institutions have also declared a holiday Wednesday. The last total eclipse seen from Nepal was on Jan 22, 1898 and the next one will occur on May 14, 2124. nepalnews.com
Sunday, July 19, 2009
Mr. Harigopal Shrestha Thesis,
There are various shrines and small temples outside the both gates. Narayan, Ganesh, There are shrines of Hanuman, Siva linga and small stone constructed Sive temple out side the Dhunladhwakha; and several Siva lingas, sleeping Narayan, Ganesh shrine etc. and a two tiered Mahadev temple outside the Mahadyodhwakha. Due to that Mahadev temple, the age was named Mahadyodhwakha.
Due to these shrines and temples out side the gates, every one who crosses each of these gates feels that he/she is welcoming for going to a holy, religiously important place. Hence it can be said that these shrines and temples have been placed there to show the importance of the Gunbihar.
The spaces in the
- Religious picnic spaces :
- Non religious picnic spaces:
The spaces in the
Religious picnic spaces : -
Religious picnic spaces in the valley are Daxinkali, Gunbihar, Budhanilkantha, Suryabinayak, Changunarayan, Neel Barahi, Godawari, Bajrabarahi etc.
7.3.2 Non religious picnic spaces: -
Nagarkot, Tribhuwan park (Thankot), Kakani etc.
He has further explained that Bajrayogini sanctuary is a great pilgrimage site for both Hindu and Buddhist people. In the introduction to his History of Nepal, Daniel Wright loosely speaks of the Hinduization of Bajrayogini. The sanctuary draws pilgrims from all over Nepal and beyond (e.g. from India, Tibet and Japan).
Nowadays, "Gun Bihar" is called Bajrayogini by those not living in Sankhu, specifically to the red-faced and yellow-faced mothers who are called "Hyaunkhwa-maju" and "Mhasukhwa-maju" respectively by the people of Sankhu. Tamangs (an ethnic group of people) also refer to the goddess (es) as the red-faced and Yellow-faced mothers but in their own Tamang language.
Mr. Harigopal Shrestha's Thesis,
Sunday, June 28, 2009
The police on Friday said Biren Shrestha Pradhan, the main accused in the abduction and murder of Khyati Shrestha, killed her on the day of abduction itself by hitting
her on the head. And, said police, Merina Shakya, the 16-year-old accomplice who had helped Biren abduct Khyati, had witnessed the entire scene.
Pradhan confessed to police that he had killed Khyati by hitting her head after the sleeping pills given to her did not render her fully unconscious, said Superintendent of
Police Nawa Raj Silwal, Chief of Metropolitan Police Range, Kathmandu. Khyati's postmortem report also suggests that Khyati died due to head injuries.
Shakya, according to Silwal, confessed that Pradhan hit Shakya when she tried to prevent the murder. However, Shakya also confessed
that she visited Pradhan's rented apartment regularly and helped him conceal and scatter Khyati's body parts.
Pradhan confessed that he had initially planned to demand Rs. 2.5 million as ransom. But he changed his plan and demanded Rs. 1 million after murdering Khyati. Police had earlier recovered part of the
While part of the money was found in an account Pradhan had with a finance company, part of it was discovered hidden among Shakya's textbooks.
Shakya was a student at Adarsha Vidya Mandir, where Pradhan taught biology for 14 years.
After Pradhan's arrest, Khyati's decomposed head was found in a forest in Balaju, the torso in Lalitpur and her limbs in Chitwan.
The police also said going by the brutality of the crime and his lack of remorse, Pradhan could have co-mmitted other crimes in the past. Investigations are underway on whether he had other accomplices, police said.
Pradhan, a gambler, confessed he had been a regular at casinos. He lured Khyati to his rented apartment in Khusibu town planning on the pretence that she had been selected by a women's magazine for a cash award and an all-expenses paid trip to Pokhara.